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Male Infertility

Male infertility is a factor for about 50% of couples that are unable to conceive, which has led fertility specialists to develop more testing and treatments to discover the underlying causes of male infertility. Infertility is not as uncommon as you might think. In fact, more than 15% of couples worldwide are dealing with health, genetic, and lifestyle issues that cause infertility.

What Causes Male Infertility?

While there is no one specific cause of male infertility, lifestyle choices and genetics can play a role.


Lifestyle choices such as exercise regime, diet habits, tobacco use, alcohol use, and even a person’s occupation can have both positive and negative effects on a male’s fertility. Lack of sleep and psychological stress can also suppress testosterone.


Tobacco and recreational drugs are addictive substances. Nicotine alone promotes oxidative stress throughout the body, including testicular tissue. The high levels have been shown to adversely affect the quality, quantity, and effectiveness of sperm.

Unhealthy Diet

Maintaining a diet high in animal protein and saturated fats can lead to poor sperm quality and quantity. For effectiveness, sperm require antioxidants found in fish and poultry, low-fat dairy products, beans, fruits, and vegetables.


Various studies have shown parallels to the effects of alcohol use and the structure of the sperm. Long-term use can decrease the production of testosterone and other dependent hormones required for sperm quality and quantity.

Prolonged Heat Exposure

As hot temperatures cause the testicles to settle, sperm production is reduced, and abnormal cells can lead to infertility. Use of heat radiating products such as cellphones and laptops can impair male fertility.

Genetic Factors

One of the significant causes of infertility can be found in one’s genetic markings. While diagnostic testing can be complex, researchers concentrate on the issues affecting male chromosomes. The production and movement of sperm depends greatly on the genetic makeup.


Sperm motility, concentration, morphology, and other semen parameters are affected by the aging process. While some men are fertile past the age of 50, most males become infertile. This condition is attributed to normal physiological changes.

Hormonal Issues

An imbalance in male hormones can have a profound effect on the production of sperm. The pituitary gland and hypothalamus both help to control and regulate sperm by the secretion of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH). Elevation or a reduction in hormone levels hinder the quality and quantity of the production.

Anatomical Abnormality

In addition to hormones, a male’s anatomical abnormality can adversely affect fertility. Enlarged spermatic veins, undescended testicles, premature ejaculation, and blockages can play a role in the male’s ability to produce viable sperm.


To expand on abnormality, a condition known as varicocele can directly affect sperm production. This is the enlargement of the pampiniform plexus, a vein responsible for cooling the blood flow to the testicular artery. A form of injury to this vein causes the blood flow direction valve to fail, forcing it to improperly return through the vein, resulting in varicocele formation.

Male Fertility Assessments at ONE Fertility

Infertility can be an overwhelming and emotional part of the journey towards parenthood. ONE Fertility Kitchener Waterloo focuses on both partners to uncover issues leading to infertility.

Physical Exam

The medical history and physical examination of the male partner may uncover a physical, psychological, or lifestyle reason for the infertility. Previous injuries, illnesses, or chronic health conditions may be responsible. Some infertility issues can be traced back to puberty.

Semen Analysis

Our state-of-the-art facility will carefully exam the sperm through a semen analysis test. The condition of the sperm in its quality, quantity, shape, and motility can be a leading factor in discovering the reason behind infertility.

Transrectal Ultrasound

By using ultrasonic waves, a transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) can provide detailed insight into the conditioning of the prostate and surrounding tissues. Presentation of dilated vesicles, ejaculatory duct obstruction, vesicle thick walls, or calcification can be the underlying cause of infertility.

Testicular Biopsy

A testicular biopsy procedure is done as an expansion of infertility testing after a medical exam, blood tests, and a semen analysis has been completed. The biopsy entails removal of tissue samples from the testicles to account for a low sperm count.

Hormonal Profile

A hormone profile is established by gaining a focused view of the levels of hormones such as FSH and testosterone. Fertility-related hormones LH, prolactin, and dihydrotestosterone may also hold the key to a male’s infertility.

Male Infertility Treatment at ONE Fertility

ONE Fertility Kitchener Waterloo offers male infertility treatments based on the results of testing and assessments.

Hormonal Therapy

Hormonal therapy helps to regulate the hormone levels that may be affecting the fertility of the male. The condition and motility of the sperm depends highly on the body’s natural producing chemicals, mainly FSH and LH. Hormone therapy replaces the low levels of gonadotropins which are responsible for sperm production.

Varicocele Surgery

For varicoceles, a varicocelectomy is performed to relieve the inflamed veins. This surgery removes the varicoceles, allowing better blood flow. There are two types, microsurgical and laparoscopic. Both focus on addressing the affected veins while preserving the ones in good form.

Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART)

Assisted reproductive technology, (ART), is infertility treatments for both partners. In the occasion of male infertility treatment, ART is used when other treatments fail. In vitro fertilization, intracytoplasmic sperm injection, and intrauterine semination are the more known ART treatments.

Cryopreservation of Sperm

The freezing of the sperm is a proven technique to ensure the sperm can be used in the future. While it is not considered an immediate infertility treatment, it can be the solution in situations where the male is undergoing radiation treatments or a vasectomy. Cryopreservation of sperm is an evidenced-based method of properly storing sperm for dozens of years.

ONE Fertility Kitchener Waterloo’s Fertility Assessments

With male infertility conditions, the specialists at ONE Fertility Kitchener Waterloo offer tests and solutions. Our goal is to provide expert fertility care, treatment, and counselling to both partners by focusing on individual needs and comfort level. Contact us today to book a consultation with one of our esteemed fertility specialists.

myths bout male infertility


4271 King St East, Suite 200
Kitchener, ON
N2P 2X7

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